Village Praxis: Drive the Right Rifle (AR/MSR): Upgrades Less Optics by Bill Buppert


“Something hit me very hard once, thinking about what one little man could do. Think of the Queen Elizabeth — the whole ship goes by and then comes the rudder. And there’s a tiny thing at the edge of the rudder called a trim tab. It’s a miniature rudder. Just moving the little trim tab builds a low pressure that pulls the rudder around. Takes almost no effort at all. So I said that the little individual can be a trim tab. Society thinks it’s going right by you, that it’s left you altogether. But if you’re doing dynamic things mentally, the fact is that you can just put your foot out like that and the whole big ship of state is going to go. So I said, “Call me Trim Tab.” 

The truth is that you get the low pressure to do things, rather than getting on the other side and trying to push the bow of the ship around. And you build that low pressure by getting rid of a little nonsense, getting rid of things that don’t work and aren’t true until you start to get that trim-tab motion. It works every time. That’s the grand strategy you’re going for. So I’m positive that what you do with yourself, just the little things you do yourself, these are the things that count. To be a real trim tab, you’ve got to start with yourself, and soon you’ll feel that low pressure, and suddenly things begin to work in a beautiful way.”

Buckminster Fuller

“The chains that cuff humanity are made out of office paper.”

Franz Kafka

‘The only thing that saves us from the bureaucracy is inefficiency. An efficient bureaucracy is the greatest threat to liberty.”

Eugene McCarthy

Publisher’s Note: The Deep State is doing recon with Antifa and BLM.

Liberty in all traditional societies, that is the Greek sense of liberty, or in the Christian sense of liberty elsewhere, is a liberty of accomplishment.

The propaganda of the Left is inherently anti-reality; thus, any reading that is reality-based is anti-Left. (The same is true of science, for example–it is not just history. But any modern science work that touches on any controversial topic, such as sex or group differences, can obviously not be trusted, so picking works carefully here is even more important. Thus the triumph of scientism over empirical science in the latest common cold variant fiasco). Collectivists accept that the public has a right to constrain individual rights on behalf of society. When it comes to the right to bear arms or free speech, they believe society SHOULD step in and crush it for the public good (even if it’s misguided sometimes).

Yes, the response to the Chinese Communist Corona Pox (CCCP) from the “right” has been very disappointing. I live in AZ where Joe Biden’s lost mollusk-brother is Comrade-Governor Il Duchey who has proven spinal columns may be optional at birth.

I don’t really understand it; the Occam’s Razor explanation is that the people everywhere have been corrupted by safetyism and the war on masculinity. We can be certain that plans for this are already laid; the entire tactical program of the modern Left is to wait until some event happens that can be mendaciously used to whip up emotion (fabricated domestic coup; George Floyd’s death) and then cynically use it to implement an existing well-organized and well-funded plan to force through a political change, relying on a massive network of allied groups outside the inner circle to immediately coordinate and amplify when the plan is launched.

Once your able to shut people up through fear, intimidation or brainwashing, the race to the bottom begins whether of the economy or your trip bottom of the mass grave.


Don’t let them.

You’ll notice wherever the U.S. government goes “nation building” creating new neo-imperialist shit-pits, they don’t spread the 2nd Amendment while forming governments.

108 shopping days until the next shambler stumbles into the Offal Office tripping on its puppet strings.

Rule 556 will be in force until further notice. -BB

A number of readers have contacted me on my recommendations for improvements and mods on a standard “modern sporting rifle” and while mission profile dictates considerable latitude in what you need, there are some basic considerations to make the rifle work in the situation we in the new spicy times may find ourselves. Start with a quality AR donor like Bravo Company or Daniel Defense or LMT. I am not a fan of rifles with a barrel length below 16′ because I think the Stoner design and performance standards of the 5.56 round require a longer barrel length. If the Stoner isn’t your cup of tea, there are plenty of other bloggers in the liberty ‘verse commentariat who can talk endlessly about improving your Galil, AK, FAL (been there, done that) and every other modern self-loader built for war with knowledge and enthusiasm (not necessarily in that order). I recently was asked by two friends to compile a short list of these mods. First of all, buy quality parts; if you have a ten dollar head, get a ten dollar helmet. Excepting one, all of my ARs are FDE  because I live in AZ and I don’t like black parts on a rifle. In the hanger wars, I have gone exclusively to M-LOK.

Minimum mods:

Midwest Industries or Odin Works Free Float hand guard 15″ or 17.5″; I use longer barrels as I mentioned and I also think the increased length optimizes body geometry for support arm and makes the kinematics of driving a rifle more effective in all vertical and horizontal dimensions forward of your line of sight. The free float hand guards also secure the barrel entirely at the barrel nut proximate the upper and lower receiver union putting zero flex on the barrel especially if you mount your sling (your support side) at 270deg snug to the barrel nut location.

Magpul UBR stock; yes, this is a heavy stock but there is none like it for lockup, strength and cheek weld consistency. The Generation1 weighs  approx 25oz and the Generation2 weighs approx 21oz. There are lighter stocks out there but none provide the strength of a fixed stock in a collapsible configuration like the UBR.

Magpul K2 pistol grip; a very good grip angle at a clean 17deg as vertical as one can get for a PG. The more vertical orientation makes for much better trigger press.

Magpul MLOK AFG; I will not use a vertical grip which has one primary purpose, retention in CQB but the ability to deploy the rifle properly in the prone is compromised severely. But I am a big believer in two components to use the support hand to drive the rifle. The first is the lightweight M-LOK AFG at 180deg as far forward on the rail as possible that you are comfortable with in concert with a “gas pedal” mounted at 270deg that you wrap your thumb around emulating the same thumb over thumb grip you employ on your Glock. The thumb rest will greatly extend retention and reduce fatigue without interfering with proper prone deployment of the rifle.

Magpul MS4 sling; I have written before on the power of the sling in gun handling and this is my go-to with the leading edge QD’d as described above (270deg forward of barrel nut) and the trailing edge (I am right handed) locked in at the stock detent at 90deg. If arranged this way, you won’t strangle yourself when you go to opposite shoulder during drills or two way ranges.

ALG ACT Trigger; yes, there are many fancy triggers but one pillar of my philosophy is KISS so I use this which is a more polished version of GI trigger so I am not surprised by the trigger behavior of Stoner orphans in battlefield pickup.

Extended Magazine Release from Odin Works or Radian; for my hands, I prefer not to rotate the grip on my strong hand from the trigger press and the extended release allows me to drop the magazine with minimal change in firing grip.

Ambi Safety/Fire from Odin Works or Radian (45deg); ambi is very convenient because it allows you to anticipate unexpected angles of and mechanics and the 45deg cuts your safety manipulation time in half.

Ambi LT charging handle from Radian or Strike Industries; the worst part of the Stoner design made better.

Maritime Bolt Catch; I wan the ability to palm strike the release and it helps in Conditions Red and Black when your gross motor skills start to decay and diminish.

Aftermarket set of BUIS F and R with the front sight HK style; I use these but Gun Jesus is making me think twice since he has developed a 5.5# Stoner with optics and saved weight by not having a BUIS. Someday….

Questions or anything I didn’t cover, ask in the comments.

Optics: we’ll save that discussion for another day but if you are not red dotting your rifles and pistols, you are missing out.


62 thoughts on “Village Praxis: Drive the Right Rifle (AR/MSR): Upgrades Less Optics by Bill Buppert”

  1. Optics on fighting rifles and carbines, absolutely. Which type is a personal decision depending on your eyes and your local terrain.

    On pistols, I’m sticking with iron sights. Why?

    [1] I realize that under certain circumstances, red dots on pistols are fantastic. Standing 20 or even 50 yards from steel targets, an accurate pistol with a good red dot is amazing.
    But in many other circumstances, at least for me, they suck. Firing around barricades with your off hand, sometimes it takes a long time to find the red dot at all, for example. Firing from crazy positions in general, red dots are a problem for me.

    [2] While a fantastic pistol with a good red dot might be terrific all around, despite [1], odds are great that at some point you won’t have that great pistol. You are going to have to go with the pistol you can find, not your perfect pistol with your favorite red dot. You are going to have to use the Glock, SIG, Xd or any other pistol available, and it’s going to have standard iron sights.

    So for both reasons above, I’m using and training with iron sights.

    The other absolutely imperative rifle mod is a great sling. You have to be able to wear that carbine for hours at a time, through all kinds of transitions from patrolling to walking down a street with it slung, and it just has to work, period. I see so many folks who seem to not have really figured out slings, constantly getting tangled up etc. Work on the sling, the sling is as important as the stock and grip etc.

    1. The FBI gunfight stats show most gunfights under 7 yds w the vast majority of those at six feet. A red dot on a pistol is not needed at those distances. However the big thing that is sorely needed are h2h, knife and impact weapon skills. Too many gunners focus only on the gun neglecting the other things happening at six feet.

      1. I am more than satisfied with the Burris 332, which is sort of kinda a poor man’s ACOG.
        I’m in NE Florida, and it’s very hard to conceive of an engagement past 400 yards with my carbine, but the 3X fixed does accomplish that mission from a rest, easily. Standing, with a few tries.

        To some, it’s not as “bright” as an ACOG, but it costs 1/3 of an ACOG, and it has a much longer eye relief box. I use it shooting up close with both eyes open, swinging the barrel, as soon as I slow down on the target the target jumps out in sharp focus. (Like an ACOG). BANG.

        I don’t think I give up much at all from zero to 50 yards, compared to 1X Aimpoints. Numerous carbine classes with mostly 1X red dots on the line satisfies me of this.

        But with my 60+ old eyes, the 3X really shines at 100 to 400 yards. I can make out and hit targets easily that would just be a blur over iron sights, especially in low light with dim targets against a dim backstop. Yes, it needs a battery (one of those quarter size jobs) but even with no power, the etched black reticle is still there.

        My goal is not to sell or push the Burris scope. It’s what works for my eyes, in my terrain, at a price I can afford.

        I no more try to tell folks, “This carbine sight is the best!” than a woman would tell her friends, “This bra is the best!” or a guy “This truck is the best!”

        But it works for me.

        And I probably jumped the gun on a thread that is not about optics….

    1. Johnny Paratrooper

      Only 200 meters? GrayGhost I know you are banging steel farther than that. The M80 ball is good out to 1500 meters.

  2. I like tritium night sights on a pistol because whenever I open an eye at night I can see right where it is instantly.

  3. Good morning Bill, I’m smiling, another no shit straight forward series of notes. This I know, build what works, work what you brought, and life’s good. It appears a lot of folk are getting away from BUIS, I frankly don’t get it. I’m not in that crowd. Love my red dots, but I COUNT on my BUIS to get me thru.

    I’m also a believer in, all of us better make whatever tool you bring, borrow steal or pickup, work when things get joggy, familiarization with multiple tools is a no brainier.

    Solid advice from a solid gentleman, keep up the good work Bill.


  4. Mr. Buppert, I’ve found that an AR with a long barrel unbalances the rifle, putting the weight way forward of where other, more traditional rifles is, making it harder to control for followup shots. How do you (personally) compensate for this phenomenon? Is there some method to re-balance the rifle so that it feels more like a traditionally balanced firearm with the balance point just to the front of the receiver?

    1. Johnny Paratrooper

      You need to hold on to your rifle like a man. No offense intended, but I have never heard anyone claim the AR recoil and AR rifle is unbalanced. It was literally designed to work just fine. You can put the rifle on your nose and pull the trigger. Try that with a Mauser 8mm… Did you part out a Frankenstein rifle? You should have an A2 birdcage on the end of the barrel, and it sounds like your rifle might be over-gassed for some reason.

      1. No One (looking completely shocked), “ just kicked my dog, ‘Gun Jesus’ in the nuts?!?..

        H..How dare you!!…’Gun Jesus!! come back!!..come back!!”.

        ‘Gun Jesus’ (running down the street like a pack of Timber Wolves want to invite him
        to dinner!), “Yipe!! yipe!! yipe!! yipe!! yipe!!” (fades as he rounds the corner and puts on
        steam as he heads for the county line…).

        Well played JP! Well played indeed, good sir!!

        Perhaps No One should stay with an Airsoft variety?…..

      2. Not everybody is a man….. Or a fit man. Some of us are older than dirt, like the first issue rifle was of the M1. Not a M14, just M1. These ideas are fine for fit men OR women (that I believe our host was referring to). But the housemouse and I are, at best, antiques. I can still use the 16in but the wife’s upper body has issues so a 10.5 inch does the trick. We are not going to run and gun due to health reasons and old age. But we damn sure won’t just lay down or get on the bus. Not everyone gets to get out of this alive. So be it. As Matt Bracken notes, he now needs optics to see well. Same here. Got to see to make hits. So one size does not fit all, and if you are lucky to live long enough you might fit our situation. Just plan for the future just as you stock food. What will you need when you are 78? Will you be able to find it then?

        1. NOG,

          YMMV per age and fitness. I simply offer a baseline from which you can modify to your combat chassis needs. I turned 60 this year and I am slowing down but I will put the effort into nutrition and fitness to keep my edge. I am not a large human but the long rifle recommendations I made work for me. Repeat after me. We are all individuals.


          1. The current rage is short barrels, so you can go from CQB to moderate ranges and still have an effective 556. Say, point blank to 300+ yards.

            But it’s worth mentioning that the genius named Gene Stoner, who dreamed up a platform still in use around the world 60 years later, built his rifle to launch a 55 grain M-193 at 3,250 fps from a 20 inch pencil barrel on an M-16 A1. And that projectile at that speed just rips people up, as any Vietnam combat vet will tell you, or at least, that’s what they all told me.

            [Yeah, I know about the .308 AR-10, and the USAF wanting a 556, etc etc. But the platform made its bones in 556 with a 20 inch barrel, 55 grains at 3250, and it WORKED.]

            You can get longer ranges with longer (slower) projectiles [up to 77 grains] with a faster twist, and still put the hurt on folks out to 700 yards.

            Or you can cut the barrel to ten inches, with less velocity and more maneuverability in CQB, and these will also “work.”

            Showing what a genius Stoner was. What a platform. And inherently great with a flat top for an optic, unlike the also excellent AK platform.

            1. Johnny Paratrooper

              I can shoot an AR out to 900 meters. With a 100 meter zero. Using a TA31 ACOG on an M4A4(I think it was an A4)
              When the author writes his piece on optics. I will make a video on my new Johnny Paratrooper Youtube Channel and post it in the comments.
              I’ll give everyone a quick and dirty class on the different optics and tricks you can use to go REAL far with them.
              It’s gonna be cool. You’ll really enjoy it. My classes were always well received by my soldiers.

              1. “..I will make a video on my new Johnny Paratrooper Youtube Channel and post it in the comments..”

                Looking forward to your new YT channel JP, it’s gonna be ‘Yuuuuuge’!!
                Just keep an eye peeled on YT as they have been shadowbanning and
                un-subbing gun/2A positive channels and content providers…also been
                playing the ‘This content violates our “community standards” game (and
                they almost NEVER directly return answers as to ‘what’s objectionable/
                why the video was pulled/deleted’). This has been going on more and
                more since the adult-diaper-league and their fellow travelers at the
                Southern [in name only] Permanent Libel Commenters have gotten
                involved with them more and more.

                For my purposes, have gotten two Primary Arms Gen III prisim scopes
                with the ACSS reticles; one for my AR, the other for my Serbian M70 AK.
                Due to the current responsibilities at work, I haven’t had a chance yet
                to go out and get them sighted on my rifles yet; hope to do that this

                Again, good luck with your new YT channel (and a tip, regularly check
                the analytics on your channel..will give you a good idea of what your
                viewship is over time and if YT is messing with view counts/subscribing).

            2. @ Matt Bracken

              Re: “But it’s worth mentioning that the genius named Gene Stoner, who dreamed up a platform still in use around the world 60 years later, built his rifle to launch a 55 grain M-193 at 3,250 fps from a 20 inch pencil barrel on an M-16 A1. And that projectile at that speed just rips people up, as any Vietnam combat vet will tell you, or at least, that’s what they all told me.”

              Matt, in case you are interested, Dr. Martin Fackler was the pathologist who did most of that research on terminal ballistics. If memory serves, he was in both the army and the navy over the course of his long career as a would ballistics specialist and pathologist.

              M193 55-grain Ball and M855 62-grain Ball both relied upon high MV to perform optimally. Stoner et al. had originally met the performance specifications for the army’s light rifle project in the late 1950s by exploiting one of the unique characteristics of lightweight, high-velocity projectiles, their dynamic instability relative to longer, heavier and larger bullets. All spitzer-type military rifle bullet designs are inherently tail-heavy; they are kept in nose-first flight orientation by the high rate of spin imparted by the rifling and their high velocity. Smaller, lighter bullets, however, have a tendency to want to”swap ends,”or orient themselves tail-first, when their spin stability degrades enough or when encountering an obstacle such as the body of an enemy soldier.

              Fired at a high-enough MV – such as from a 20-inch barrel M16 with 1:12 RHT rifling – the 55-grain FMJ would yaw and then tumble within the tissue, fracturing or shattering into a cone of high-velocity fragments. The multiple wound channels and damage done thereby – as well as the temporary channels due to hydrostatic shock – were enough to prove devastating to many of the enemy personnel unfortunate-enough to be hit by high-velocity M193.

              Dr. Fackler’s research included forensic pathological examination of many recovered bodies of enemy soldiers hit by M16 fire, and apparently they were so gruesome that they remained classified for a long time after the war.

              The mechanism of action of M193 and also M855 – its 62-grain successor – explain much about the inconsistency and wide variation in performance seen with the M16 and its use in combat in Vietnam and elsewhere. Some troops reporting devastating terminal effects upon enemy personnel, others reporting enemy “tangos” sustaining multiple center-mass hits without apparent ill-effect, and so on. If impact velocity is sufficient to produce shattering/fragmentation and the other specified terminal effects, around 2700 fps or higher, then the rifle and its load are apt to perform well. However, if MV isn’t sufficient, and the small-bore .224-cal. slug does not yaw, tumble or fragment, then it is apt to produce a caliber-sized hole, often a “through and through” which does not severely wound the enemy. Particularly true of smaller stature or slender men, as our special operators and Rangers found out in 1993 in Mogadishu.

              Modern ammo types, including solids, bonded solids and open-tipped match designs, have been shown to operate well from AR-platform rifles, carbines and SBRs, across a wide range of MVs, barrel lengths and operating conditions, as they are not nearly so muzzle velocity dependent as M193 and M855. Your buddies in the SEALS are, if reports are accurate, quite happy with the performance of Mk. 262 Mod 0 and Mk. 262 Mod 1 77-grain OTM loads. Both supersonic and subsonic/suppressed.

    2. No One – please disregard the smug and self-congratulatory responses you’ve gotten so far…

      1. There are “long” barrels for AR-15 rifles that are of the ‘HB’ variety (Heavy Barrel) which are used for Highpower and other shooting contests. These are typically 20″, which is how Stoner’s rifle was originally designed. Guys who shoot Highpower will also put lead weights in the buttstock to “rebalance” the rifle and to pick up the maximum allowable weight (13 lbs. iirc). They do this because it turns out that “heavy” usually doesn’t go with “harder to control” – because the weight (mass) of the rifle effectively soaks up what little recoil the 5.56mm offers. Heavy – and even “heavy out front” – is better for recoil control.

      But there are there are 20″ lightweight barrels, too. These are frequently called “pencil” profile or something like that. These will offer the ballistics that Buppert likes, while reducing weight out front. You can buy Cold Hammer Forged (CHF) chrome-lined pencil-profile barrels at 16″ from Daniel Defense for less than $300. They rule. Please don’t buy them all…

      Everything else is related to weight of the hand guard you are using. The pencil barrel will make the rifle weighted towards the rear without a hand guard, so now you will either spend big money or small to get the balance right. I find that 13″ or 13.5″ hand guards from V Seven or Noveske are light, strong, and useful – but there are plenty of other good makers out there that are NOT Troy Ind. – which company paid Lon Horiuchi as an “Advisor” after he shot Vicki Weaver….

      1. HBARs came along later, Stoner’s Vietnam era M-16A1 used a 20″ pencil barrel to get 3250fps out of 55 grain M-193, and it worked like a charm.
        If you didn’t mind a rifle barrel longer than your left hand, trying to maneuver through jungle vines. Long barrels suck when they keep getting stuck in vegetation.
        But as far as a weight issue, the 6.6# M-16 A1 with its 20″ pencil barrel was light in weight, and heavy in effect. For real.

        1. Johnny Paratrooper

          Jungle vines can EAT MY SHORTS. And my canteen, and my compass, and my magazines. LMAO.

          The green monster eats everything.

        2. “HBARs came later…”.

          Yes. I was trying to say that those HBs are used for high power, and that 20″ barrel length was the original Stoner design.

          Yeah – 3250 fps. is a mountain of hate. Bad news on the receiving end.

    3. No One,

      You must do what you find works for you, my recommendations for the M-LOK AFG and gas pedal help tremendously in leveraging the arm geometry of the support hand to stay on target for effective driving. A heavier stock will also balance the rifle.


  5. No mention of lights, Bill. Since half of the day, on average, is low or no light conditions, how does one positively identify one’s target before pressing the trigger? What is your philosophy on lights? Recommendations, if any?

    1. Johnny Paratrooper

      Surefire, Streamlight, and Inforce.
      Basically anything for sale on Brownell’s, Midway, or any other gun site.
      Optics planet has great prices.

    2. Submariner,

      I will cover lights with optics but I run the Olight Odin on my AR platforms. If weight is a concern, a Streamlight TLR-1 may be the ticket.

      If you have NODS, then a PEQ-15 IR illuminator may improve the odds.


  6. All those little things matter. It’s the devil in the details.

    Those 45 degree safety switches are just awesome on the AR, especially with fatter after market grips which improve trigger reach.

    I’ve evolved in my stock preferences, gone full circle and went back to the AR rifle stock, but in A1 length, that 3/4’s of an inch less makes a big difference, and using a simple modification of slanting the butt end, seems the perfect pull length for me, and I get that nice storage feature of the A1-A2 rifle stock for lube, a bore snake, batteries, fire starting, spare bits etc. I’ve come to appreciate a slanted butt, handy for the various tactical shooting positions, allows me to change my cheek weld in regards to funky shooting positions and circumstances snap shooting and combat creates.

    Tried the angled fore-grips, they are nice, but the cons outweigh the pros for me, a simple minimalist finger/barricade rest seems best. As you say mounted far forward as possible works very well. KISS.

    No doubt, the ALG trigger is a game changer, for very reasonable money. The top shelf model has a super high precision bearing set up. Well lubed it works best. I keep the heavier trigger spring for designed in combat trigger safety reasons.

    Have to try your suggested mag release Bill, I’m still running the mil spec button release.

    Fooling with a Picatinny rail mounted bolt charger. It uses a stock charging handle, hangs off the left side of the receiver, has a palm slam bolt release feature too. The bolt handle folds down out of the way so it don’t snag on stuff. Got a prototype running, so I can find out what don’t work well about it. Pretty simple design.

    Something not mentioned much, but must be considered: Cold weather Op’s: I can say thru personal experience, in the winter and colder and wet seasons, because of the need to hold the for-end in the ready position, I have gone to covering my aluminum free float for-ends with wood panels, or converted the fore end to wood as in the case of a .308 Saiga, to keep from freezing my hand and fingers. The cloth camo wrap I’ve got around my for-ends helps to keep the hand warm too. It may seem a small thing, but fingers which go numb is a real distraction mentally and physically; eliminating this is a small effort, measured in gold. The warmer I am the longer I can remain out in that weather. The better my attention and ability to function.

    Plastic pistol grips seem to work as will as wood in this regard. Though nothing worse than a numb trigger finger, so I a fabricated a small wood trigger finger rest/pad to get it away from the chill of a metal receiver. Attached using epoxy, so far so good.

    The necessities of long duration functioning in cold temps demand this, it’s not about enduring the suck or manning up, it’s because loss of dexterity from frozen fingers, the body using up precious energy to warm those body parts, is physically depleting. Trying to grab a magazine or dealing with a FTF or jam, or your AFAK kit, canteen, etc with fingers too numb to function, and not being able to feel things without having to eyeball what your doing is not good. Eyes and mind on target. Being able to remain on alert and fully ready constantly without such a distraction and impediment is a big plus. Everything that eliminates having to take the head and eyes out of the tactical picture is a force multiplier, and they all add up.

    One thing about slings I’ve discovered by carrying a sling-ed weapon for long durations, still hunting and tracking is a good way to discover how your kit works, involves the end point attachments, where I prefer direct attachment to fixed non-moving sling loops. I prefer the more stable state a ridged end mount style provides. It is a far quieter set up also, less tangling and twisting. It’s personal preference.

    Also, found I need lots of adjustment because donning lots of cold weather clothing requires a lot of extra reserve webbing length, preferably using high grade quick adjusters. I’ve gone to Cobra buckles. Really great little item. Found this website sells them very reasonable and they have all the styles, very impressive array. Reason for this is they make for a dandy quick release feature:
    These guys have a good selection of webbing and related products:

    It’s about KISS principles for me, all the way.

    I think if you are a person who lives in metro/urban areas, its not a simple thing to head out the door armed to the teeth attired in your full combat load-out, and freely spend hours practicing your tactical readiness undisturbed. The Karens and other red diaper crybabies tend to swat your arse, they are ultra rare in the unpopulated close woods or open plains. Op Sec KISS.

    Having the benefit of living my life in rural environments, hunting, trapping, and going out in inclement weather for long duration to basically test my gear, from hours to days, I find a lot of things are very different when the temps drop below 60, then in below freezing temps, rain/snow, stuff happens you must experience 1st hand to appreciate and make improvisational changes and adapt yourself and gear to. Seriously one of those have to see for yourself things. Best to do it at ones leisure than trial by fire. And I can tell you, hypothermia comes in a variety of forms, is very difficult to shake without resorting to the luxury of warmth of ones castle, its actually a downward cycle without having a source of heat that will warm your body directly. And some people are effected mentally by hypothermia, like go bonkers retard crazy, paranoia, delusional. Seen it first hand, its not good. You don’t need a full dunking in cold water falling thru thin ice either to get it. Only something that drains core heat from you, like a metal fore-end. Silly sounding, maybe, but the cold and raw wet are another kettle of fish entirely, effecting everything. Think of being in an observation post for 8 hours at 15F. The little things add up fast. The little things is what gets you.

    This War, is not a fair weather conflict.

    As the Russian’s say about General Winter…

    1. Doug,

      Thanks for the insights on cold weather, I don’t contend with those but I do end up in The Redoubt with family that is already up there, different story. Please keep me updated on the charging handle contraption you are describing.


    2. Great insights, thanks, taking notes.

      That said, going back to my first comment about why I don’t put red dots on pistols, this might be a good idea at our next carbine classes.

      On the firing line, everybody running ARs, instructor says, “Everybody lay your rifle down. Move over one rifle. The next drill will be run with somebody else’s rifle.”

      Hell, for that matter, AR or AK.

      My point is, don’t fall in love with one perfect setup perfectly adapted to your likes and desires.

      Be ready to pick up ANY AR or AK and still dominate a fight. It seems to me that we might all be playing “Rifle Roulette” during the coming festivities. Don’t be married to one sweet setup. Be a warrior able to use all of them. Including all common optics, lights, lasers, NODs, etc.

      It’s the same reason we should practice hard with off-hand and one-hand shooting. You never know what fate is going to throw your way.

      1. Clint Smith at Thunder Ranch has been doing “Rifle Roulette” for years. Next drill with the next guy’s rifle. Next drill with the next (next) guy’s rifle. It sucks, but it sucks less if the guys you’re with aren’t stupid or cheap.

        My opinion is that “nifty” extras, like BAD levers and other stuff are just problems waiting to happen – and they don’t make your stick any easier to use for your buddy (or the medevac guys) while they’re dragging you out. +1 to all the “more money in optics” guys.

        Re: red dots on pistols… I dry fire and shoot both. If you leave the front sight on (tall front sight to ‘clear’ the red dot body), you’ll find the dot much, much faster. In fact, most people I’ve trained or trained with are slower with dots because they’re looking for the dot instead of looking for the sight picture. If the front sight is there, and is – first consciously, and then subconsciously – used to align sight picture, the dot will be there. And then it’s really fast. JMHO.

        Re: hypothermia… cotton (or anything else that is hanging onto the moisture) kills. Wool is the best, bar none. Layers FTW. And for the “frozen fingers”? Goretex & insulated mittens that fold down to expose fingers and then fold right back up.

    3. ” And I can tell you, hypothermia comes in a variety of forms, is very difficult to shake without resorting to the luxury of warmth of ones castle, its actually a downward cycle without having a source of heat that will warm your body directly.”

      Always the number one concern in my neck of the woods. Major killer up here. And for those wondering how the AR runs in sub-zero weather…I’ve never had any cold weather issues. And they make fine hand warmers when running high octane. I use only Remoil for lubricant.

    4. Doug:

      In my AO it rarely gets very cold (normal winter low temps are ~20 degrees F). Even at those temps, or even above freezing, hypothermia is a real potential killer, and one to be considered in depth. Appreciate the points made; thank you!

      I am curious about what sort of magazines you run in the temps you experience. I like Magpul magazines but have little experience with them in cold weather and no experience in temps below 20 degrees. If you would, I’d be very interested in your experience in this regard, what sort of mags you run, and any special gear prep you do for extremely cold weather.

      With regard to all who seek the Light, Historian

      1. I use only stainless steel magazines…20 rd on my AR 10. I don’t lube my mags on the inside. I only use dry lubricants and only lightly on the gun. My typical outside winter temp is around -10 to -20 below zero. Providing there is no wind, those temps are comfortable to work in on account of the low humidity. It’s the wind that changes the equation. Interior Alaska usually is dead calm. When there’s wind however, the chill factor becomes more extreme with wind speed. It could be only be -10 below ambient, but -80 below wind chill, as an example. Any exposed flesh will freeze in these conditions.

        Your gun will also be affected by these conditions. One mistake I often see is over-lubed, wet lubricated guns. Wet lube will congeal at these temps. Another mistake is moving your gun from cold to warm environments. Leave your gun in the cold if that’s where you’re working. I use steel magazine because steel is what they mate to. I’m not sure if polymer expands equally with receiver metal and I’m concerned about brittleness should the magazine be dropped in such extreme temps. But alas, I don’t have any experience with PMAGs because I don’t use them. Just a physics hunch.

  7. Johnny Paratrooper

    You need Back Up Iron sights. Don’t listen to Gun Jesus.

    He also says you don’t need a Forward Assist on your rifle. (Right…)

    His friend Carl says you don’t need to clean your AR. (Stupid…)

    You can seen the problem here…

    Listen to the guys who actually have lived in the desert or the mountains. Not the Youtube gun celebrities.

    Buy metal BUIS. The plastic Magpul ones are junk. One bad fall and they explode into pieces.
    Eotechs and Aimpoints are great. I own about $12,000 in optics and nightvison. And I was an Infantry Armorer in the 82nd for years. Trust me.

    I have more money in optics and irons than guns. Get over it now…

    Buy once, cry once.

    1. JP,

      We agree on all of the above. I have thousands in optics but not 12k but my youngest son keeps telling to get GenIII+ NODS.


    2. That said, and I agree with you, see my above comment about not becoming “married” to one sweet perfect (for you) setup.

      Be able to dominate a fight that starts with a friend throwing you a strange (too you) iron-sight bone-stock AK you never saw before that minute.

  8. Skip (the Collapsitarian and Village Armorer)

    I’m with Bill on about 96% of his conclusion, and anything differing is just personal preference. The ALG trigger is perfect and reliable. The Radian 45 degree ambidextrous selector makes shoulder transitions faster for me. Two point slings are a must… I’m partial to the VTAC, but they are very similar. I have a UBR on a .308 to support consistent check weld for the higher powered 2.5-10x optic, but have a few other MAGPUL options on my 5.56 platforms like the CTR and even an MOE SL-S.

    I use Troy (HK front for CQB) and KAC BUIS exclusively, excepting the GG&G 45 degree offset irons for LPVO-laden carbine/rifles.

    I agree with Matt Bracken on red dot sights on pistols. I tried the RMR for about a year but, until my vision requires it, I’ll remain fast and consistent with irons. (415/500 on last 500 point pistol qualification)

    I just want to plug the James Madison Tactical poly/glass nanotube (and now carbon fiber) lowers… great way to shed a half pound, if weight reduction and avoiding the long form is a priority.

  9. -Concur w longer barrel preference as 5.56 performance is tied to bullet velocity, and a longer barrel gives me more distance in which it is effective; shortest I will go is 16″; 20″ is my primary.

    – I run tritium BUIS; YHM makes my preferred sight with a Meprolight insert fore and aft. Simple and rugged.

    – concur with ambi safeties, but prefer 90 degrees

    – for anything over a hundred yards, I prefer a GOOD two stage trigger. Running Geiselle, but am planning to test LaRue.

    – currently running Magpul QD slings and Magpul QD attachment (ASAP) .

    – run plain picatinny rail forends, see no reason for the Mloc. Considering angled fore-end grip, but not currently running one.

    – for light carbine run red dot only; for primary run red dot and conventional scope.

    1. Historian,

      Per handguards, had a DDM4 rail with monolithic picatinny at every angle; too heavy and too uncomfortable on ungloved hands. The M-LOKs I run are not only lightweight but have built in QD mounts to save even more weight. My wife’s Odin O2 Lite at 15″ weighs 10oz+ with barrel nut. She likes it.


      1. Re HG-
        One of the things about the 4 sided rails is that you can run plastic inserts to smooth the unused rail segments, which somewhat reduces both abrasion and heat transfer either way. Another is that the larger diameter reduces the heat uptake from a very hot barrel, at least a bit. But they are heavier than the Mlok, true. I may have to give that some thought.

        On another note, I am trying bolt carrier upgrades, and like the Palmetto nitrided BCG I got. Spent three days in a muddy rainy class doing a fair amount of shooting and the Palmetto bolt was easy to clean at the end of each day. Any thoughts on BCGs?

        Regards, Historian

        1. Historian,

          Thanks for the insights in this and the previous post. Yes on black nitride or nickel boron [lower co-efficiency of friction]; melonite QPQ is good too. I am thinking about doing an entire essay on BCGs, the heart of the Stoner system. Will post this month or next. Gas ring and extractor replacements may be the cheapest immediate upgrade. A new bolt runs about 80 FRN. I recommend BCM parts for that. Not a fan of manual cleaning since I got my ultrasonic cleaner for the BCG. I picked up a couple sink strainers that I use to hold the small parts and clean them very thoroughly with the machine and then lubricate the cleaned parts. Be aware that the ultrasonic is so effective, it strips the parts of any trace of lubricity.


          1. You are most welcome, sir. “the purpose of shooting is hitting!” Gear is not skill, but good gear can help make things a bit less difficult, and this discussion is definitely worthwhile. I look forward to your thoughts on optics, dot sights especially and on BCG upgrades, too.

            BCM makes good stuff, and I am a fan of their Gunfighter charging handle.

            I am told that one can use kerosene effectively in ultrasonics but I have not tried it; right now my ultrasonics are employed in cleaning brass and I use citric acid and dish soap in warm water for that. not sure I want to use water on my BCG.

            WRT bolt mods- I like the single tri-wrap gas ring, forget who sells it, but that is a handy mod. So far, (knock wood) I have not had any extractor failures on any personally owned firearm, even my 40+ year old 1911, but I tend to be proactive on replacing such things, and I don’t mind spending a bit more to get first quality parts that have been tested properly.

  10. I’m 70. Weight and endurance are factors. My favorite at this point in time is a Palmetto Armory carbine with an old school carry handle topped off with a Nikon P-223 scope. It works for me and I can consistently shoot quarter size groups with it at 50 yards. I’ll leave the distance issues to guys with better eyes and more stamina.

  11. Am currently running a Holosun 512. Like it. Wide view and enclosed like an Eotech. Reticle is very crisp and clean. Wanted to specifically mention that they offer and option with a gold colored reticle specifically for folks who are color blind. I am also 60+, graduated Small Arms Repair School at Aberdeen Proving Grounds in 1974.

    1. Johnny Paratrooper

      Holosun gets a lot of street credit. But I haven’t used them. I found 4 Spark II’s for $125 delivered a couple years ago and picked them all up with extra batteries. The Spark is a decent optic. But I wish the Spark II used a AAA battery…

  12. Mr. Buppert,

    “ALG ACT Trigger; yes, there are many fancy triggers but one pillar of my philosophy is KISS so I use this which is a more polished version of GI trigger so I am not surprised by the trigger behavior of Stoner orphans in battlefield pickup.”

    Installed this trigger in wife & son’s AR’s (I run Larue MBT). Frankly, I’d be perfectly happy with the ALG-ACT, it’s a great trigger.. Never know, might change mine out to these as well.

    However, your reason for utilizing this trigger is kind of contradictory to using the 45* ambi safety, extended mag release and maritime bolt release, no ??

    I’ve considered/tried these options and I do run things a bit better with them but it’s certainly not in keeping with the KISS principal. Still back and forth with these items.

    Thanks for the great articles.

    1. Artie,

      However, your reason for utilizing this trigger is kind of contradictory to using the 45* ambi safety, extended mag release and maritime bolt release, no ??

      Those are all simply extensions of existing ergo controls to either shorten action time (ambi safety) or increase mass on existing controls. Same finger and hand movements to actuate/safe the battery of the weapon. A two stage trigger would not extend or increase mass on existing controls but significantly alter function of existing military semiautomatic or M4/M16 platforms.


      1. Bill,

        Agree, your modifications are essentially just an extension of the existing controls except for the ambi-safety, that’s a bit of a luxury (albeit very useful). I do keep trying to talk myself into these control upgrades though.

        And you have me thinking of “down-grading” my trigger. Been thinking of that for awhile actually. You just present good sense as to why.

        Thank you Sir.


      2. Bill:
        WRT triggers-
        GI style single stage is what a lot of folks run and what came on the AR/M16. I’ve run them for years in the AR platform, but after almost 50 years of highpower starting with the M1 and the M1A, when I push to my limits I find that I am faster and more accurate with a good 2-stage in both close range and longer range shooting. Took another class recently and the splits and the paper told the tale. So I now run 2 stage by preference, but YMMV. Whatever trigger you run, crisp and clean are still just as important as they have been for >160 years. A creepy or gritty trigger is right out; barring vision issues that require optics, (and my old eyes do much better with them,) a bad trigger is the single worst thing to have on your carbine, especially if you are running a lightweight one. Those of you who are thinking about upgrades, whether it is single stage or two stage, strongly suggest you spend the bucks for an excellent trigger.

        WRT sights-
        My wife has had cataract surgery on both eyes and does not see well at any distance past arm’s length, but during her last carbine class, to save the last few ounces of weight for a multi-day class, we removed the optics from her carbine, and she used only irons. She was the 2nd from the top (ahead of me) in both speed and accuracy in a class of a couple dozen male shooters, many of them experienced, at distances out to 100 yards. For most people, even nearsighted old people like me, a good set of irons will keep you in the game.

  13. I’ve been running a pinned FSB upper since around 2013. The only thing I changed was to a Magpul stock from the black plastic. I can fire a hundred rounds through my rifle and still fully grip it without gloves on. I just wanted to point this out. Metal gets hot.

    I only use a Vortex 3x prism sight. It has an etched reticle so when the battery goes out it still works.

    For the trigger I have a two stage. I need every little bit of help I can get.

    I don’t like changing my setup, but I read articles like this and make small adjustments over time.

  14. BB and/or Matt, JP, or anyone else who’s been on patrol where it actually mattered…

    Carbine lights = I don’t get it. If I’m a door-kicker and I’ve got to PID various people in close quarters, yeah. I’d probably want something ‘nuclear white’ if it were available.

    If I’m patrolling outdoors, I can’t imagine needing or wanting it. Seems like light-based ND would be a really bad thing. Seems like I don’t know where or when it wouldn’t make for a handy aiming point for the Wrong Team. Even IR lights or floods for your NODs seems like a 50-50 / bad-odds game since lots of people are buying the cool toys.

    I read NC Scout over at AP, and he says no lights on patrol, but I’m trying to not just say, “Yeah – that’s what I thought.”

    Any additional thoughts or concerns?

    1. I agree. Lights on carbines for CQB, inside, but not for patrolling outside. Use a NOD if possible instead.

      For outside patrolling, reducing light sig is critical. A 200 lumen ND is a serious mistake!

    2. Johnny Paratrooper

      Can you see in the dark? Mount a light on your primary “Go to” weapon. Just make sure you can disable the light. The lights that cannot be disabled are a liability. Remember, your light is a weapon in of itself. Dominance is important. Everyone runs weapon lights. They are the standard. Same with NVGs(NODs). If you don’t think weapon lights are necessary, go to your local indoor “Lights out” Airsoft match and watch yourself get destroyed by 14 year old kids. They will absolutely annihilate you. I have lights on all of my weapons. Sometimes I have two lights. But the second one is a soft red light of a lowest lumen so I don’t get lost in the “green monster”. The green monster will eat you alive. Weapons lights are pricey, but you only need one on your weapon. When you fight someone with NOD’s a white light is a good defense, but at the same time, it’s also suicide. But it’s suicide not to blind your target. This requires a degree of training to understand. Kinda like how to effectively play airsoft and paintball. Or shooting a pistol versus shooting a rifle. It all takes practice. Lots of practice. Remember this, the reflector on your weapon light reflects light. It’s like having a little mirror on your weapon. This is a COMPLEX subject. But it boils down to two basic principles. Can you see in the dark? Do you have another means of hands free lighting? I prefer to have all my stuff on one complete package. Which makes it a “Grab and Go” kinda thing.

      1. I’m with Matt and BrunOp; I don’t run lights. My thinking has always been that a light makes you a target first and foremost. A lot of folks who have ‘seen the elephant’ agree.
        The light makes you much more of a target under most circumstances than it improves your targeting ability; it is a net negative. Moreover, I am not in a SWAT team, or part of an infantry platoon clearing houses in Fallujah. My tactical requirements and mission are different from law enforcement, which are again different from military. My *primary* goal is to ensure the survival of my family and myself, not hunting and killing enemy soldiers, terrorists, or other bad people.

        I do run tritium night sights, illuminated reticles and flares. NODS, thermals and IR lasers are nice to have, but not everyone can afford those. Tritium sights are a lot cheaper than NODs and they do allow a good sight picture in pitch darkness. Parachute flares allow target ident, turning darkness into twilight, and can blind an opponent making any NODs your opponent has less effective, without marking you as a target. IR strobes are even better inside a building. Thrown flares work well outdoors, but you need to warn your team not to look at them. Train, train, train……

        With all that said, YMMV. It’s supposed to be a free country, and if you are set on running a light, go for it! I would invest in good body armor, too.


  15. Folks,

    Just a few remarks regarding setups on my longarms.

    Regarding barrel length I prefer < 16" barrels. The Bravo Company USA ARmalite barrels in 11.5" and 12.5" lengths being my preference. My Kalashnikov's run the factory 16.3" barrels. As Mr. Bracken pointed out in one of his remarks above, he believes the < 16" barrels with 55gr. 5.56, are fine out to 300m. Certainly agree with him. Besides, for my purposes 300m distances are generally maximum range for target engagement. My preferred bullet weight are the 77 grain (or 75 grain as a substitute) rounds.

    The handguards on my longarms are all changed from the factory handguards. I have weapons with Keymod handguards or M-Lok. All free float. Only handguard consideration I have is the length of the handguard. My length preference is that which will get as close as possible to the muzzle device, allowing install of suppressor.

    When it comes to triggers I am not a fanboy of single stage triggers. After installing Geissele Tricon 2-stage triggers the Geissele product has won me over. However, they're not inexpensive. So, I decided to give the much less expensive ALG ACT trigger a try. Did not care for it. To me it felt/performed no different than a milspec trigger. Decided to try the Larue MBT-2S two-stage trigger; bought one. Now, I just need to install it.

    Both my ARmalites and Kalashnikovs wear the Magpul UBR, GEN 1 or GEN 2. The UBR is designed where the shooter's cheek never touches the buffer tube. The UBR design covers the tube while still allowing for shooter adjustment.

    Again, all my longarms wear the same pistol grip. That is the TAPCO SAW-style pistol grip for both AR or AK platforms. Every grip I have ever used feels too small. The TAPCO SAW grip corrected the size issue for me. Love it ! Another piece of furniture I succumbed to is the MAGPUL Angled Fore Grip (AFG). Just seems to provide me a good ergonomic feel to my support hand.

    Regarding sights….I have iron backups installed. Never use them. Prefer a TRIJICON Accupoint 1-4x with chevron reticle. It is the closest variable optic I have found giving the shooter a red dot-like performance with the option of magnifying AND focusing with the adjustable ocular.

    Well, those are thoughts on what I use on my longarms. Spent more money trying products that did not perform as well as my listed items above. The market today offers many options. It is often difficult to make a choice. Good luck on whatever brand, style component you choose. Just get out there and shoot.


  16. White Oak / Geiselle forends
    Geiselle two stage triggers
    7 or 8 twist barrels, quality, one 16″ and one 20″
    77 /75 grain
    extra weight buffers
    appropriate optics (floaters etc prevent me from getting reliable hits beyond 300 yards with irons, shit literally disappears behind the floaters)
    I really like the Magpul MS4 sling: single point, two point, supported position, even better with a SMALL hand stop / barricade stop; easy transitions

  17. I’m left-eye dominant and shoot rifles from my left shoulder, so an ambi safety is a huge plus.

    However, the way I use an ambi safety works for EITHER hand on the pistol grip, because I use BOTH sides of the safety, depending on whether it’s going on or off:
    1) I sweep the safety OFF (down/FIRE) with the thumb of my trigger hand. No surprise there.
    2) I sweep the safety ON (up/SAFE) with my trigger finger. Just keep your palm on the grip, trigger finger STRAIGHT, and tilt the trigger hand up to press the BASE of your trigger finger against the bottom of the safety lever, and continue this motion until your trigger finger has pushed the safety lever back to “SAFE”. Using the BASE of your trigger finger forces your trigger finger WELL UP AND OUT of the trigger guard–do NOT use the tip of your trigger finger, because people have had negligent discharges because they pulled the trigger instead of the safety. Again, use the BASE of your trigger finger, NOT the tip, and it FORCES your finger AWAY from the trigger.

    I haven’t heard of this being commonly done, but I find it works very well. This works as well for a standard 90-degree-throw safety as it does for 45- or 60-degree safeties.

    Try it for yourself.

  18. Some of the comments crack me up.

    The Anti-Dot folks sort of remind me of the same people back in the 90’s who didn’t like Dot’s on carbines. Now, nearly everyone runs either a dot or an LPVO on carbines. Just a couple years ago, it was all the rage of the commentariat on blogs to poo poo LPVO optics and dismiss it as “gamer” or “3 gun” stuff.

    Sure, statistics and averages are good. Most gun fights happen up close. It’s all well and good to live in that world. And you probably wont need to take that 25 yard shot… until you do.

    The problem I see most folks complaining about dots is they 1. Don’t train to the level needed to attain basic competency with the dot and acquiring it on presentation. If you shoot once a year, you’ll never get there. You probably need to be dry firing 3-5x a week for a minimum of 15 min to become competent. If you don’t want to train (which is pretty much a given for most folks who read gear articles vs training related material/classes/educational materials), it’s best to not get a dot. 2. Most people making the comments about not being able to find the dot or that it’s slower at close range, are simply holding the dot to a higher standard than they do their irons. At 3 yards on an A zone size target you don’t need to see a totally clear, sight picture. You can stay target focused. You really only need to see the slide of the gun in the aiming area. Why can’t you do this same thing with a dot gun?

    Using irons at distances that require the classic, marksmanship style sight picture, necessarily require longer time to identify the target, bring the vision back to the gun to align the sights on target, check it on the target, then accommodate your vision BACK to the sights of the gun. Often you may have to do this accommodation of vision more than once between the target and the sights. With a dot, you look at the target, you put the dot on it and you press the trigger. This is exactly why a red dot is faster on a carbine than irons to the point of it being a settled consensus. Why is it different on a pistol?

    If people are competent shooters, that train and still cant make the dot work, I’d suggest looking into a bigger window on the optic. One that you can track your dot in recoil with as a metric. Acquiring the dot is much quicker.

    Back up irons on guns… Why not? But I’d be remiss to point out all the guys running DMR’s and Precision guns or Tier 1 types with LPVO carbines with quality glass that have no back up sighting system. This sort of reminds me of the conversations about guys who spend all their time talking on internet forums about contingencies, rifle to pistol transitions, etc….when I hear from guys who have been doing the deed in SOF for 20+ years and have not once ever heard of a primary weapon going down and having to go to a pistol, on purpose, in combat, in the ‘mountains and desert.’

    Per lights: having dozens of hours in lowlight training under reputable, national level instructors, and however many other hours in my own practice, I only run Surefire. Mod lite and Cloud Defensive are also great, if you can afford them. Streamlight would be as ‘budget’ as I’d go. Here is the thing…all lights break. What you are doing is mitigating WHEN it will break and how much abuse and weapon recoil it will take. I’ve seen cheap lights fly off guns, break on their first outing to the range, glass shatter doing manipulations off their environment…

    What Surefire will do is is last 20x longer than the cheaper lights.

    Another problem with pistol lights in particular that are non Surefire / Streamlight is holster compatibility.

    1. Further, in the past, some of the folks commenting about speed with the dot vs irons are the first ones to say ‘no timers in a gun fight brah!”

      Looking for sense in some of these folks is like looking for sense in supporters of democrats and republicans.

    2. Thanks, John, agree with all your comments with slight disagreement on light manufacturers but that is neither here nor there.

      Per dots, five time faster than irons on rifles and pistol. Period. Perfect presentation on pistol through practice will solve all “where’s Waldo” problems with target prosecution.

      Second your thoughts on rifle to pistol transition. In SOF, it is not done, only in the movies. If your rifle runs dry, maybe but not the preferred mode of engagement. Just took a course from Bob Keller (Gamut Resolutions), former CAG assaulter, and he said it is simply not done.

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